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King Eider
Somateria spectabilis
Common Eider
Somateria mollissima
  (Linnaeus, 1758)
Harlequin Duck
Histrionicus histrionicus
IOC 8.2
 

Common Eider
Somateria mollissima mollissima
Nesseby, Varanger, Finnmark - 2016-02-25
© Jonathan Newman
 










































Field guides

Plate/page: 94

Sibley, D. A.
The Sibley Guide to Birds

Plate/page: 9

Porter, R. and Aspinall, S.
Birds of the Middle East

Plate/page: 86

Sibley, D., A.
The Sibley Field Guide to Birds of Western North America

Plate/page: 82

Sibley, D. A.
The Sibley Field Guide to Birds of Eastern North America

Plate/page: 37

Svensson, L.
Collins Bird Guide to the Birds of Europe

Plate/page: 37

Svensson, L.
Collins Bird Guide to the Birds of Europe

Plate/page: 18

Brazil, M.
Birds of East Asia

Plate/page: 222

Porter, R.F, Christensen, S. and Schiermacker-Hansen, P.
Birds of The Middle East

Plate/page: 38

Eduardo Garcia-Del-Rey
Field Guide to the Birds of Macaronesia: Azores, Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde


References

  • Somateria mollissima: Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2018. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: v2018.
  • Somateria mollissima: Gill, F and D Donsker (Eds). 2018. IOC World Bird List (v 8.2). http://www.worldbirdnames.org/
  • Svensson, L.: Collins Bird Guide to the Birds of Europe; Princeton University Press, 2009; ISBN:0-007-26814-9
  • Brazil, M.: Birds of East Asia; Helm Field Guides, 2009; ISBN:0-713-67040-1
  • Porter, R.F, Christensen, S. and Schiermacker-Hansen, P.: Birds of The Middle East; Princeton University Press, 1996; ISBN:0-691-12104-4
  • Porter, R. and Aspinall, S.: Birds of the Middle East; Helm Field Guides, July 2012; ISBN:0-713-67602-7
  • Sibley, D. A.: The Sibley Guide to Birds; Alfred A. Knopf, October 2000; ISBN:0-679-45122-6
  • Sibley, D., A.: The Sibley Field Guide to Birds of Western North America; Alfred A. Knopf, April 29, 2003; ISBN:0-679-45121-8
  • Sibley, D. A.: The Sibley Field Guide to Birds of Eastern North America; Alfred A. Knopf, April 2003; ISBN:0-679-45120-X
  • Eduardo Garcia-Del-Rey: Field Guide to the Birds of Macaronesia: Azores, Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde; Lynx Edicions, 1 May 2011; ISBN:8-496-55371-X
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    Scientific Classification
    Kingdom Animals
    Animalia
    Phylum Chordates
    Chordata
    Class Birds
    Aves
    Order Waterfowl and Screamers
    Anseriformes
    Family Ducks, Geese & Swans
    Anatidae
    Genus Somateria
    Species Common Eider
    mollissima
    (Linnaeus, 1758)

      v-nigrum Bonaparte & Gray, GR, 1855
    Breeding: : ne Asia, Alaska. Nonbreeding: Bering Sea, Aleutian Islands
      borealis (Brehm, CL, 1824)
    Breeding: : ne Canada, Greenland, Iceland. Nonbreeding: n Atlantic
      sedentaria Snyder, 1941
    Hudson Bay, James Bay (Canada)
      dresseri Sharpe, 1871
    Breeding: : se Canada, ne USA. Nonbreeding: nw Atlantic coasts
      faeroeensis Brehm, CL, 1831
    Faeroe Is.
      mollissima (Linnaeus, 1758)
    Breeding: : nw Eurasia. Nonbreeding: nw and c Europe
    Taxonomic notes
    IOC 8.2: PS: Some Common Eider subspecies including Pacific Eider S. m. v-nigrum may deserve species status (Livezey 1995, Garner & Millington 2010)
    Distribution
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    Breeding: NA, EU : Arctic. Nonbreeding: n AO, n PO
    Conservation Status
     LC  IUCN Red List 2015
    BirdLife Species Factsheet
    Names
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